Advancing and retreating Ma-ai 2 – (ι–“εˆγ„) en/of Ma (ι–“). PART 2: “The Ma requires advancing and retreating, separating and meeting.” From: Karate-do Kyohan, Maxims for the karate trainee, β€œEight important phrases of Karate”. Gichin Funakoshi. photo: Yuru Chara (Japanese mascot) squeezes itself through a public transport gate. The Japanese name for costumed performers is…

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